First things first: opioid use disorder (OUD) is not a moral failing, a choice, or a character flaw. OUD, also referred to as opioid addiction, is an illness that involves the chronic use of opioids. Source.
Brain imaging studies from people with substance use disorders show changes in areas of the brain that are critical to judgment, decision making, learning and memory, and behavior control. Scientists believe that these changes alter the way the brain works and may help explain the compulsive and destructive behaviors of addiction.
A promising student might see his grades slip. A bubbly social butterfly might suddenly have trouble getting out of bed. A trustworthy sibling might start stealing or lying. Behavioral changes like these are directly linked to a changing brain.
Addiction also creates cravings. These cravings can be painful, constant, and distracting. Withdrawal from substances is a painful, whole-body experience. Once someone is addicted, responding to cravings and avoiding withdrawal become their most important needs.
It’s not about your background, where you grew up, or how much money you make. Addiction can happen to anyone. Still, researchers have identified what kinds of experiences and biological circumstances put some people at greater risk than others. Source.
Stigma and punishment are simply not effective ways to heal a person’s addiction.
A person can’t undo the effects opioids have had on their body chemistry through sheer willpower. Like other chronic illnesses, such as asthma or type 2 diabetes, ongoing management of OUD is required for long-term recovery. And there are plenty of evidence-based solutions that can help people with OUD get there.
Addiction stigma and discrimination experienced by those with OUD is one of the largest drivers of the opioid crisis, independently leading to tens of thousands of preventable deaths each and every single year. It prevents many from seeking treatment, erodes self-worth, fosters social isolation, and prevents the use of life-saving medications.
Stigma around addiction often overlaps with other forms of stigma, including discrimination based on race, class, gender, sexual orientation, or occupation. In fact, seven of the nine commonly cited drivers of the opioid epidemic are either partially or entirely driven by stigma.*
Opioids are either derived from or chemically similar to compounds found in opium poppies. Opioids include:
While prescription opioids can be medically necessary to treat certain types of pain, they can also be misused a number of ways. They can be taken orally as a pill, but in higher dosages than prescribed, or without a prescription at all. They can also be crushed up and inhaled or injected. Non-prescription opioids, like heroin and fentanyl, can be inhaled, injected, or smoked.